A fundamental question in science is identifying the causal relationships between variables.
Sujihara carbon dating
Walking around Nakameguro there a tons of small shops with local people making stuff.
And the everyday shopping’s incredible: shops like Tokyu Hands, which sells pretty much everything. You might think you know 7-11 in the United States, but it’s just a whole other world in Japan.
In 1969, however, Granger suggested an alternative framework for detecting causality based on the idea of using prediction as a criterion.
In the Granger causality framework, a variable x is said to “cause” variable y if x has unique information (i.e., not found in other variables) that can improve the prediction of y.
I like trying to spend my time there as an average person.
Experiencing a different culture’s idea of “normal” is so great, and Japan is just so different from my everyday life in New York or San Francisco. There’s a secret place with a black tarp and a bone I like to go to: Ganko Ramen. But if you can’t get there, you can go to any train station and get a bowl of noodles that will just amaze you. Populations occasionally experience abrupt changes, such as local extinctions, strong declines in abundance or transitions from stable dynamics to strongly irregular fluctuations.Although most of these changes have important ecological and at times economic implications, they remain notoriously difficult to detect in advance.Radiometric dating or radioactive dating is a technique used to date materials such as rocks or carbon, in which trace radioactive impurities were selectively incorporated when they were formed.The method compares the abundance of a naturally occurring radioactive isotope within the material to the abundance of its decay products, which form at a known constant rate of decay.Our aim is to infer the loss of population stability before such shifts based on changes in nonlinearity of population dynamics.